"Beyond Genes: Navigating the Complexities of Modern Plant Breeding" is a comprehensive book that explores advanced techniques in plant breeding. It covers marker-assisted selection, genomic breeding, introgression, hybrid development, genome editing, and sustainable agriculture. The book also addresses breeding for climate resilience, disease resistance, stress tolerance, and the role of the plant microbiome. Additionally, it discusses preserving plant genetic resources and Indian variety release methods. Fruit crop improvement and polyploidy breeding are explored for enhancing fruit crops. Overall, the book offers valuable insights for researchers, agronomists, and plant breeders seeking to improve crop outcomes in modern agriculture.