The documentation of plants found in the fragile ecosystem of Theertharampura Reserve Forest in Chikkanayakanahalli, Tumkur, India, served as the foundation for this study. This study reported 130 angiosperm taxa from 103 genera and 42 families of medicinal, timber yielding, ornamental, and wild edible plant species. The forest is mainly comprised of tree species (60%), followed by shrubs (21%), herbs (10%), and climbers (9%). 41% of the total flora in TRF has historically been used by the local villagers for a wide range of purposes. The soil contains low content of nitrogen along with sulfur and copper but it has a high content of Iron and Manganese nutrients. The adaptation of more conservation strategies is still needed for the survival and sustainability of plant biota. Due to scarce information, furthermore, research is needed for the compilation of in detail biodiversity studies in this fragile ecosystem.