Discovered a long time ago, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins are currently produced through genetic engineering, allowing for studies on their role in development and cell metabolism, particularly through transgenic cells and animals. The BMPs are differentiation factors, causing mesenchymal cells to differentiate (mature) into bone- and cartilage-forming cells. in contrast, factors such as PDGF and TGF are growth factors. Growth factors cause cells to divide, thus expanding their numbers, and may cause cells to augment production of cellular products such as extracellular matrix proteins. As such, preparations such as platelet rich plasma (a major source of PDGF and TGF) may be used to enhance bone graft. BMPs were originally discovered in bone tissue, and currently their clinical use lies in promoting bone healing, however, they are expressed in a wide range of non-skeletal tissues during mammalian development, including germ layers, whiskers, hair, teeth, urogenital system, gut, heart and brain. From the discovery of BMPs to the advancements in tissue engineering, the field of bone regeneration has tackled a wide variety of surgical issues caused by trauma, bone loss diseases, infections, biochemical disorders, and abnormal skeletal development. Some of these facts and the nuts and bolts (basics) which are required to understand BMPs are discussed in this book.